DEPARTMENT OF APPLIED PHYSICS
ADMISSION NOTICE (2009-2010)
The Admission to M.Sc. Nano Science and Technology course sanctioned by DST, New Delhi
Application are invited for admission to M.Sc. Nano Science and Technology from candidates having passed B.Sc. with at least 50% marks with Physics and Mathematics as compulsory subjects. Admission will be done on all India basis through an entrance to conducted by the department on 03-07-2009. Each student admitted to this course will get a scholarship @ Rs.3000/- pm and annual contingency @Rs.10000/-. For more details see University Prospectus 2009/University website www.gndu.ac.in
Syllabus for Entrance Test for MSc Applied Physics
(Electronics) & M.Sc. Nano Science and Technology
DATE OF EXAM: Friday, 3, July, 2009 (2-4 PM)
Maximum Marks : 100
Time Allowed : 2 Hours
There will be 100 questions of multiple choice type. All questions are compulsory and carry 1 mark each. No negative marking. Non programmable calculator is allowed.
Optics and Lasers
Interference : Concept of coherence, Spatial and Temporal coherences, Coherence time, Coherence length, Area of Coherence. Conditions for observing interference fringes. Interference of light by wave front division and amplitude division. Michelson’s interferometer-working, rinciple and nature of fringes. Interference in thin films. Role of interference in anti-reflection and high reflection dielectric coatings, Multiple beam interference, Fabry-Perot interferometer. Nature of fringes.
Diffraction : Huygens-Fresnel theory, half-period zones, Zone plates. Distinction between Frensel and Fraunhofer diffraction. Fraunhofer diffraction at rectangular and circular apertures. Effects of diffraction in optical imaging, resolving power of telescope. The diffraction grating, its use as a spectroscopic element and its resolving power.
Polarization : Concept and analytical treatment of un-polarized, plane polarized and elliptically polarized light. Double refraction, Nicol prism, Sheet polarizer, retardation plates. Production and analysis of polarized light (quarter and half wave plates).
Laser fundamentals : Derivation of Einstein’s relations, Concept of Stimulated emission and population inversion, Broadening of spectral lines, natural, collision and Doppler broadening line width, Line profile. Absorption and amplification of a parallel beam of light passing through a medium. Threshold condition, three level and four level laser schemes, elementary theory of optical cavity, Longitudinal and transverse modes.
Laser systems : Types of lasers, Ruby and Nd : YAG lasers, He-Ne and CP lasers, construction mode of creating population inversion and output characteristics. Semiconductor lasers, Dye lasers, Q-switching, Mode locking, Application of lasers-a general outline, Basics of holography
Formalism of Wave Mechanics : Brief introduction to need and development of quantum mechanics, Wave-particle duality, de-Broglie hypothesis. Complimentary and uncertainty principle, Gaussian wave packet, Schrodinger equation for a free particle. Operator correspondence and equation for a particle subject to forces. Normalization and probability interpretation of wave function. Superposition principle, Expectation value, Probability current and conservation of probability. Admissibility conditions on the wave function. Ehrenfest theorm, fundamental postulates of wave mechanics. Eigen functions and eigen values. Operator formalism, Orthogonal systems, Expansion in eigen functions. Hermitian operators. Simultaneous eigen functions, Equation of motion.
Problems in one and three dimensions : Time dependent Schrodinger equation. Application to stationary states for one dimension. Potential step. Potential barrier, Rectangular potential well. Degeneracy, Orthogonality, Linear harmonic oscillator. Schrodinger equation for spherically symmetric potential, Spherical harmonics, Hydrogen atom energy levels and eigen functions, Degeneracy, Angular momentum.
One Electron Atomic Spectra : Interaction of atom with radiation, Transition probability, Spontaneous transition, Selection rules and life times, Spectrum of hydrogen atom. Line structure, Normal Zeeman effect, Electron spin, Stern Gerlach experiment, Spin orbit coupling (electron magnetic moment, total angular momentum). Hyperfine structure, Examples of one electron systems, Anomalous Zeeman effect. Lande – g factor (sodium D-lines)
Many Electron Systems Spectra : Exchange symmetry of wave functions, exclusion principle, Shells, Sub shells in atoms, atomic spectra (Helium). L S coupling , Selection rules, Regularities in atomic spectra, Interaction energy, Ideal X-ray spectra, Mosley law, absorption spectra, Auger effect, Molecular bonding, Molecular spectra, Selection rules, Symmetry structures, Rotational, vibrational electronic level and spectra of molecules, Magnetic resonance experiments, Raman spectra, Introduction to Raman spectra.
Condensed Matter Physics
Crystal structure, Symmetry operation for a two dimensional crystal, two dimensional Bravais lattices, Three dimensional Bravais lattices, Basic primitive cells, Crystal planes and miller indices, Diamond and NaCl structure.
Crystal diffraction :P Bragg’s law, Experimental methods for crystal structure studies Laue equations, Reciprocal lattices of SC, BCC and FCC, Bragg’s law in reciprocal lattice, Brillouin zones and its derivation in two dimensions, Structures factor and atomic form factor
Lattice vibrations, Concepts of Phonons, Scattering of Photons by phonon, Vibration of mono-atomic and linear chains, Density of modes, Einstein and Debye models of specific heat, free electron model of metals, free electron Fermi gas and Fermi energy.
Band Theory : Kronig-Penney model, Metals and insulators, Conductivity and its variation with temperature in semiconductors, Fermi levels in intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, Qualitative discussion of band gap in semiconductors, Superconductivity, Magnetic field effect in superconductors, BCS theory, Thermal properties of superconductors.
Electronics and Solid State Devices
Concept of current and voltage sources, p-n junction, Biasing of diode, V-A characteristics, Zener diode, LED, LCD. Rectification : half wave, full wave rectifiers and bridge rectifiers, Filter circuits (RC,LC filters), Efficiency, Ripple factors, Voltage regulation, Voltage multiplier circuits.
Junction transistor: Structure and working, relation between different currents in transistors, Sign conventions, Amplifying action, Different configurations of a transistor and their comparison, CB and CE characteristics, Structures of JFET and MOSFET, Transistor biasing and stabilization of operating point, Fixed bias, Collector to base bias, Bias circuit with emitter resistor, Voltage divider biasing circuit
Working of CE amplifier, Amplifier Analysis using h-parameter, Equivalent circuits, determination of current gain, Power gain, Input impedance , FET amplifier and its voltage gain, Operational amplifier, Characteristics and applications, feed back in amplifiers, Different types, Voltage gain, Advantage of negative feed back, Emitter follower as negative feed back circuit
Barkhausen criterion of sustained oscillations, LC oscillator (tuned collector, tuned grid, Hartley), RC oscillators, phase shift and Wein bridge, Modulation and detection, AM and FM, Power in AM and generation of AM detector, Radio transmitter, Radio wave propagation, Ionosphere, Radio receiver, TV receiver.