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Monday, February 25, 2008

Previous Years Question Papers Mumbai University

Click the following the get Previous Years Question Papers of University of Mumbai

B.COM PREVIOUS YEARS PAPERS

MANAGEMENT AND HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT MARCH 2005 B.COM

MANAGEMENT AND HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT OCTOBER 2005 B.COM


BUSINESS ECONOMICS OCTOBER 2005 B.COM

Management & Human Resource Development - March 2005 (B.Com)

B.Com

Management & Human Resource Development - March 2005

Time: 3 Hours
Marks: 100

N. B. : (1) Attempt any five questions in all, with a minimum of two questions from each section.
(2) Figures to the right indicate full marks.
(3) Answers to the both the sections should be written in the same answer-book.

SECTION I

Q.1. Answer in brief any six of the following questions :- (12)

(a) Define Management.
(b) Give any two assumptions of Theory X.
(c) Name any four types of Interview.
(d) What is Decentralization?
(e) What is Span of Management?
(f) Name any two bases for Departmentation.
(g) What is Job Enrichment?
(h) State any two limitations of performance appraisal.
(i) What is co-ordination?

Q. 2. Answer any four of the following questions :- (20)

(a) Explain F.W. Taylor’s scientific management.
(b) Briefly explain modern approaches to decision making.
(c) Discuss the factors determining the span of management.
(d) Suggest remedial measures to resolve the conflict between Line & Staff.
(e) What are the reasons for non-acceptance of delegation?
(f) Explain the process of Management by Objectives.
(g) State the requirements for effective control.

Q. 3. Answer any three of the following questions :- 18

(a) What is staffing? Explain the factors affecting staffing.
(b) Briefly explain the selection procedure.
(c) Bring out the importance of training.
(d) Explain the qualities of the successful leader.
(e) Discuss non-monetary factors affecting motivation.
(f) How is performance appraisal useful?

OR

Q. 3. Answer any three of the following questions :- (18)

(a) Unity of Command
(b) Job Design
(c) Functional Authority
(d) Matrix Organisation
(e) Human Resource Accounting
(f) International Business.

SECTION II

Q. 4. Answer in brief any six of the following questions :- (12)

(a) Define Production Planning.
(b) Give formulae for measuring productivity of Land & Capital.
(c) What is Job Enlargement?
(d) What is J.I.T?
(e) What do you mean by Re-order point?
(f) What is Break-even Point?
(g) What do you mean by quality?
(h) What does I.S.O stand for?
(i) What is routing?

Q. 5. a) Explain the composition & growth of internal public debt in India. (20)

(a) Explain the difficulties in measuring productivity.
(b) What are the functions of production management?
(c) Briefly trace the historical evolution of production management.
(d) Describe the stages in Product Development.
(e) Explain the concept of flexible manufacturing system.
(f) What factors will you consider while designing a Product?
(g) How would you select plant location?

Q. 6. Answer any three of the following questions :- (18)

(a) What is production standard? Explain production standards at individual & Department levels.
(b) Explain the objectives of work measurement.
(c) Explain the concept of quality assurance.
(d) What is T.Q.M.? How is it beneficial?
(e) What is material requirement planning? State its advantages.
(f) What is inventory control? Why is it undertaken?

OR

Q. 6. Write Short Notes on any three of the following :- (18)

(a) Production forecasting.
(b) Production Scheduling
(c) Perpetual Inventory Control
(d) Economic Lot Size
(e) Operations Research
(f) Method Study.

Management & Human Resource Development - October 2005 (B.Com)

B.Com

Management & Human Resource Development - October 2005
Time: 3 Hours
Marks: 100

N. B. : (1) All questions are compulsory.
(2) Figures to the right indicate full marks.
(3) Answers to the both the sections should be written in the same answer-book.

SECTION I

Q.1. Answer in brief any six of the following questions :-

(a) Define management. Explain the levels of management (8)
(b) Distinguish between management and administration. (8)

Q. 2. (a) Explain Theory X and Theory Y of motivation (8)
(b) State the qualities of a successful leader. (8)

Q. 3. (a) What is span of control ? State the factors affecting span ot control. (8)
(b) Discuss the steps in control process. (8)

Q. 4. (a) What is departmentation ? How is it beneficial? (8)
(b) Why are managers reluctant to delegate ? (8)

Q. 5. (a) Comment on the conflict between Line and Staff Officers (8)
(b) How will you make committees effective ? (8)

Q. 6. Write short notes on any three of the following :— (18)

(a) M.B.O.
(b) Informal Organisation
(c) Organisation Charts
(d) Fayol's Discipline Principle
(e) Professional Managers
(f) Limitations of Planning.

SECTION II

Q. 7. (a) State the objectives of production planning and control. (8) (b) What is T.Q.M. ? Explain its features (8)

Q. 8. (a) Define productivity, What are the difficulties in measuring productivity ? (8)
(b) Explain the scope of H.R.D. (8)

Q. 9. (a) What are the symptoms of industrial sickness ? (8)
(b) Briefly explain the steps in selection procedure. (8)

Q. 10. (a) Distinguish between Job Analysis and Role Analysis. (8)
(b) Explain the uses of performance appraisal. (8)

Q. 11. (a) Bring out the need and importance of training. (8)
(b) Why is human resource planning undertaken ? (8)

Q. 12. Write Short Notes on any three of the following :- (18)

(a) Sources of Recruitment
(b) Training by Supervisor
(c) Scheduling
(d) Types of Interviews
(e) l.S.O. 9000.
(f) Causes of Industrial Sickness.

Business Economics - October 2005 (B.Com

B.Com
Business Economics - October 2005
Time: 3 Hours
Marks: 100

N. B. : (1) Attempt any five questions in all, with a minimum of two questions from each section.
(2) Figures to the right indicate full marks.
(3) Answers to the both the sections should be written in the same answer-book.

SECTION I

Q.1. a) Explain the trend of population growth in India. (10)
b)Discuss the macro – economic dimensions of Ninth Five Year Plan. (10)

Q. 2. a) Explain the structure of employment in India in the nineties. (10)
b) Discuss how Human Development in India is promoted through investments in health & family welfare. (10)

Q. 3. a) Discuss the main sources of institutional finance in agriculture in India. (10)
b) Explain the Food Security Policy of Government of India. (10)

Q. 4. a) Comment on the growth of industries in India since 1991. (10)
b)Explain the government measures and policies introduced to promote small scale industries in India. (10)

Q. 5. Write notes on any two (20)

a) Measures to reduce income inequalities in India
b) Growth rate of Labour Force in India
c) National Agricultural Policy 2000
d) Disinvestment Policy in India.

SECTION II

Q. 6. a) Outline the reforms undertaken in the field of commercial banking in India since the nineties (10)
b) Evaluate the performance of SEBI. (10)

Q. 7. a) Explain the composition & growth of internal public debt in India. (10)
b) Discuss the main features of fiscal responsibility of the union government. 10

Q. 8. a) Analyse the changes in the composition of India’s foreign trade since nineties. (10)
b) Write explanatory note on the significance of Foreign Direct Investment to India’s economic development. (10)

Q.9. Discuss the recent measures introduced in the development of transport and telecommunication sectors in India. (20)

Q. 10. Write notes on any two (20)

a) Features of Indian Money Market.
b) Recommendations of Raja Chelliah Committee on tax reforms.
c) Trade policy in the post-reform period
d) Changing role of state

Object oriented Analysis and Design (MCA)

Object oriented Analysis and Design (MCA)
Master Of Computer Applications (MCA)

Object oriented Analysis and Design
2005
Max. Marks 70
Max Time

1. a) Draw the use case diagram and class diagram for a car rental application. The car rental agency has multiple offices/branches The customer visits the agency for enquiry and takes a test ride then select the car by siging the terms and conditions form. The customer can also book the car through telephone email and sms. The agency checks the availability of the car and gives the statis to the customer. The customer can also avail the driver facility if required, by paying additional charges.

The biling is done based on the type of vechical and distance travelled.

b) Explain Inheritance and its ty[e with example.

2. Describe RUP in detail.

3.Explain Grady BOOCH Methodology.

4. a) Draw a sequence diagram for balance through ATM.
b) EXplain Object Persistance.

5. Draw the activity diagram for Online Railway Reservation system.

6. Draw the state transition diagram for Bank safety locker system which consists of sensor and the system the following facilities.

1.Sensing the intruders.
2.Taking their photograhs.
3.Scanning their finger prints.
4.Alarm System.
5.Auto Dialing to the authorities.

7. Write short notes on(any two)

a) Guidelines for developing test plans.

b) CRC

c) Any Two patterns.

INTRODUCTION TO KEYWORDS

Intoduction to Keyboards:-

Keyboards are important computer input devices that have been used since the first personal computers arrived. Keyboards are similar to a typerwriter in the sense that they have a similar layout to a typewriter with a few extra keys specific for use on a computer system. Keyboards are typically used to control the computer and interact with them. Keyboards are rectangular in shape and keys on the keyboard include alphabets, digits, special symbols and other keys.Keyboards have a varied number of keys in which standard is 103 or 104 and sometimes as many as 130 keys. Some may even have as less as 90 keys for use in laptops etc.

Types of keyboards and their working:-

The grounds on which keyboards are classified is the switch technology that is used in a particular keyobard. The switch technology is the deciding factor for the reliability of the keyboard and is responsible for keep all the keys working and away from as much wear and tear as posssible. The trends today are to use a combination of the various technologies (which results in a hybrid technology) to improve the performance of the keyboard and decrease its production cost.

(1) Dome-switch keyboard

They are also known as direct-switch keyboards. This is the most used technology in the present day world. These are basically a mix of membrane and mechanical keyboards that are explained later. In this type of a keyboard, there are two circuit board traces (lines) below each of the keys on the keyboard. The keys themselves have a ‘dome’ made of rubber right below them which are coated with a conductive material. When a key is pressed, the dome goes down and shorts the two circuit traces. This comlpetes the whole circuit and then the function of the key that was pressed is executed. It is notable that the traces are usually gold-plated.

The basic advantage of this type of keyboard is that they are very silent in operation owing to the rubber dome. However, the feedback from the keyboard is not much sensitive as the dome is of rubber. They find widespread use in offices and homes and other such places.

(2) Capacitive keyboard

A capacitive keyboard uses a pulse train to convey which key was pressed. In a capacitive keyboard, a key press is ‘felt’ on a pattern printed on the underlying circuit board. When this happens, the capacitance of the pattern changes and it results in a pulse train that is sensed to detect the key pressed and perform the respective operation. This pattern is covered by an insulating film. These keyboards are rugged and damage resistant as well as inexpensive.

(3) Mechanical-switch keyboard

Mechanical keyboards get their name from the way they function. A mechanical keyboard has real switches placed beneath each key on it. When pressed, it translates into an electrical signal that helps perform the required operation. Such keyboards are not uniform when it comes to response time and it differs from model to model. They are more apt for high-end uses.

(4) Hall-effect keyboard

These keyboards do not have any actual switch. Rather, they make use of magnets and ‘Hall effect’. This technology is different in the sense that unlike others, it does not detect keystrokes when a key is pressed. This type of keyboard detects a key press when the key is depressed. When this happens, a magnet moves which is detected by a Hall-effect sensor. Being extremely reliable, highly durable and having a long life, these keyboards are preferrable when there is a crucial application to be dealt with. Examples of use of these keyboards include those in aircraft cockpits and nuclear power plants. Obviously, they are very expensive.

(5) Membrane keyboard

Flat in shape and often used in photocopy machines, membrane keyboards have three layers. The uppermost level is touched or used by the user. The bottom-most layer has some conductive strips corresponding to that on the bottom of the top layer forming a grid when placed together. The middle layer prevents the two from being in contact constantly. Pressing of the top layer by the user leads to a complete circuit between the top and the bottom layers through the middle layer which results in the desire operation being performed. These keyboards do not provide a tactile feeling when pressed and hence a sort of visual or audio signal is used to indicate a keypress to the user.

BRIEF HISTORY OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES

Brief History of Programming Languages:-

1. Assembler

The language closest to the Central Processing Unit or rather the processor was developed in the period from 1956 to 1963 and was pioneered by IBM. It is the most low-level language in the world and finds use when programming the instructions for the processor and other hardware.

2. Lisp

Lisp, developed by John McCarthy in 1956, stands for List Processing. It was a functional language based on the lambda concept and has a wide variety of dialects including the popular Scheme programming language. ANSI’s Common Lisp is the accepted standard since 1994.

3. FORTRAN

Formula Translation or more popularly FORTRAN was one of the most popular languages of all times. It was developed at IBM by John Backus in 1957. It had a block structure and became widely popular in the early 1960s. There are as many as 40 different compilers of FORTRAN.

4. COBOL

COBOL, developed in 1959 at the Conference of Data Systems Languages, is an acronym for Common Business Oriented Language. There is no standard available for its implementation and the language still finds use in the modern day world of programming.

5. BASIC

BASIC, short for Beginners All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code was first made by John Kemeny and Tom Kurtz in 1964 at Dartmouth College. It was a very simple, yet very effective language. It became widely popular in the form of Altair BASIC (and later in the IBM machines) which was made by Bill Gates and Paul Allen (who were then the only members of Microsoft) in 1975.

6. Pascal

Pascal was another block structured language that served as an inspiration for languages such as Ada and Visual Basic. It was developed by Professor Niklaus Wirth in 1970.

7. C

C, a high-level programming language originally made in to-to with the Unix operating system in 1969-70, is one of the most spectacular languages in the field of computers. Dennis Ritchie made the most popular version in 1972 at AT&T Bell Labs. It was only in 1980s that it was standardized by the ANSI committee. C is still in use today and is often used by students as a first language.

8. C++

C++ was developed around 1983 to 1985 by Bjarne Stroustrup and was originally called “C with Classes”. It introduced the concept of Object-Oriented Programming in C and was inspired by another language called Simula. C++ is also in use today and a favorite among many programmers.

9. Perl

Perl was made in 1987 by Larry Wall and is a scripting language. It is most widely used over the World Wide Web including mail filtering.

10. Visual Basic

Visual Basic, a product of Microsoft first introduced in 1991, is by far one of the easiest languages to run. It is graphically oriented which means that instead of having to program the windows, buttons etc. for a GUI, one can simple draw them by hand and only program the underlying main code. Visual Basic can be used to develop all kinds of software and is based on the already popular BASIC language.

11. JAVA

Java, developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems in 1994, is the language that changed the way internet looked. It took the whole programming language by surprise by its sheer degree of power and efficiency. Java can be used to develop standalone programs or dependent programs (that is, applets). Java can be easily identified by its Coffee cup logo.

12. JavaScript

Developed by Sun Microsystems and Netscape in 1995 as a scripting language based on Java, JavaScript is used to make HTML documents more interactive and dynamic. JavaScript code is typically embedded into HTML code.

13. VBScript

VBScript was made by Microsoft in 1997 and is similar in functionality to JavaScript. It is based on the Visual Basic language.

Others:-Ruby, C# (C-sharp), MATLAB etc.

Many languages have been developed over the years with varying degree of success. Some modern languages such as Ruby, C# (C-sharp), MATLAB (Matrix Laboratory) etc. are slowly and steadily gaining momentum in the programming world.

DATA MINING

Data Mining:-

The process of finding certain patterns among large amounts of data is known as data mining. Data mining, which is a recent field of study under computer science, is also called Knowledge-Discovery in Databases (KDD) or Knowledge-Discovery and Data Mining (KDD). It is important to know that data mining is essentially an automatic process. Data mining involves the use of computational techniques present in statistics, machine learning and pattern recognition.

WINDOWS VISTA

Windows Vista:-

Windows Vista is the next version of Microsoft’s proprietary family of operating systems, Microsoft Windows. It was announced as Vista on July 22, 2005 and is expected to be released in November 2006 and January 2007 (for the Business and Consumer editions respectively). The new operating system boasts of many new and improved features that include better audio, video and print sub-systems and a highly advanced graphical user interface that is termed as Windows Aero.

Features of Windows Vista:-

Windows Vista has many new features that would benefit the end user in some way or the other. These are explained below:

(1) A completely redesigned interface for interacting with the operating system has been developed and named Windows Aero which stands for “Authentic, Energetic, Reflective and Open”.
(2) The Windows Shell has been completely ‘reprogrammed’ and differs in a major way from that of Windows XP. The Start Menu has been altered and no longer uses expanding boxes.
(3) The Windows instant search feature has been made even faster and more efficient in operation with increased functionality.
(4) A sidebar, called the Windows Sidebar, has been added to the operating system where a user may place Desktop Gadgets or other similar widget programs. Also, it is independent of Internet Explorer thus eliminating the “Active Desktop” feature.
(5) The new Internet browser, Windows Internet Explorer 7 has a new interface and supports tabbed browsing, zooming, searching and other such features. The browser also has improved security features including a phishing filter and it also disables the use of ActiveX controls by default.
(6) Windows Vista introduces the new version of Windows Media Player, version 11, which features a better graphical interface along with an improved media library and ability to display photos and share music.
(7) Outlook Express has now been replaced by Windows Mail that is more stable and makes it easier to search emails. It also incorporates junk mail filtering.
(8) DirectX 10 gives Windows Vista its visual spice and includes Shader Model 4.0 and Geometry shaders.
(9) Windows Vista features a new and simplified Windows Update facility that functions through a control panel instead of a web application.
(10) Speech recognition has been made an integral part of Windows Vista that can be used to execute commands and to give voice dictation.
(11) Newer and crisper fonts have been included along with support for Japanese fonts.
(12) A new calendar application called Windows Calendar has been added.
(13) A video DVD creation software called Windows DVD Maker has also been introduced.
(14) NetMeeting has been replaced with Windows Meeting Space.
(15) The features of Windows Media Center Edition that was being marketed as a separate product have been fully integrated into Windows Vista.
(16) The Windows Task Manager can now control all Windows services and so also monitor all processes and their properties.
(17) The Task Scheduler has also been improved in functionality.
(18) A benchmark system called the System Performance Assessment has been added to control the operating system and improve its performance. This function can be put to use by modern games to improve their own performance according to the operating system’s condition.
(19) A new document format, called the XPS Documents, has been introduced to store information and enable its sharing in a secure manner. It stores information through a pixel perfect rendition of the source document it is made from. The document format is independent of the application that uses it.
(20) Windows Vista also has support for data protection and its BitLocker Drive Encryption feature encrypts the whole Windows volume (though this is only available in the Enterprise and Ultimate editions).
(21) The Windows Firewall has been improved to monitor both incoming and outgoing traffic and provide ample security.
(22) Windows Vista also features an anti-spyware program called the Windows

LINUX

Linux:-

Linux or GNU/Linux is computer operating system which is similar to Unix. Linux is often treated as the best example of open source software development and has survived the competitive market which contained the popular Windows and Mac OS X distributions. What made Linux different from all its ‘competitors’ was that its source code was freely available to anyone who wanted it and it could be modified and redistributed.

History and Development of Linux:-

The GNU project started in 1983 and was founded by Richard Stallman and its goal was to develop an operating system which was similar to Unix but was completely free. Apart from the kernel of the operating system, all the other components had been developed. However, when the development of the Mach-based kernel began, it was very slow in light of the fact that it was complicated. At about the same time, in 1991, Linus Torvalds, a student at the University of Helsinki, was developing his own Unix-like operating system. This was originally called Freax. When it first became available for download to the general public, it was named Linux.

The original Linux (or Freax) did not have a boot loader and hence another Operating System was required so that it could boot. This changed when custom boot loaders were made for it, an early example being LILO. From this point onwards, Linux went on to become a fully-functional operating system with many features that surpassed the features of Unix. Today, there are various distributions of Linux available from various companies (there are called distros) which have additional application software made specifically for that distribution by that particular company.

The original Linux kernel could only work on the Intel 80386 microprocessors. Today, however, it supports many computer architectures including the x86 architecture from Intel. Since Linux is open source, it has been ported to a variety of architectures, making it the most widely ported operating system. The portability of Linux is demonstrated in the fact that it can run on systems as varied as a basic hand-held device and as advanced as a mainframe or supercomputer. Linux distributions are also available for a variety of other systems that are less popular.

Uses of Linux:-

For a large period of time, Linux has used as an operating system for servers and it is still popular as a server operating system. However, Linux can also be put to a variety of other uses owing to its qualities of being very low cost and flexible and the Unix base behind it.

Since it is available at a very low price and it is very customizable, Linux has been widely used in various embedded systems. These include handheld devices (eg., PDAs), Cell phones and Set-top boxes for Televisions. Linux has also been acting as a replacement for the Symbian OS on mobile phones. It is also an option for Windows CE and Palm OS users.

The most ‘alarming’ use of Linux is its use as an operating system for supercomputers. Two of the world’s top ten supercomputers run on Linux as their operating system. Also, 72% of the top 500 supercomputers of the world use Linux (various versions) as their operating system.

The newly announced and soon to be released Sony PlayStation 3 video game console in the PlayStation family has Linux installed as the default OS. Interestingly, certain games have also been developed specifically for the Linux OS including those from Atari and id Software.

More recently, The One Laptop Per Child project, which has an objective of providing basic computing devices to all the children in developing nations, will be using Linux as the operating system for the computing devices it distributes.

POLYMORPHISM

Polymorphism:-

Polymorphism is a technique through which a single definition can be used with different data types, acting differently each time depending on the data type. Polymorphism is implemented in different forms by many programming languages and paradigms in which the most famous are the object-oriented languages, especially C++. Polymorphism applies to data types as well as functions. A function that can evaluate to and be applied to values of different types is known as a polymorphic function. A data type that contains elements of different types is known as a polymorphic data type.

Types of Polymorphism:-

There are various types of polymorphism that can be identified as follows:

(1) Parametric polymorphism

When a function is parametrically polymorphic, the function can deal equally well with any objects irrespective of their type. In programming, parametric polymorphism was first seen in ML in 1976. Today, parametric polymorphism exists in languages such as Standard ML (or SML), Haskell, and others. Parametric polymorphism makes a language more expressive, while still maintaining full static type-safety.

(2) Predicative and Impredicative polymorphism

Systems that have parametric polymorphism can be predicative and impredicative systems. When a function is impredicative, the same function works irrespective of the types of data passed to it with an added functionality that the data passed to it may itself be polymorphic. In a predicative system, a function that is polymorphic cannot be executed with polymorphic data as arguments. It is this restriction that makes distinguishing between polymorphic and non-polymorphic types very important.

Polymorphism in the language ML and its close relatives is predicative.

(3) Subtyping polymorphism

Some programming languages use subtypes to restrict the range of types that can be used in a particular case of parametric polymorphism. Subtyping polymorphism is also known as dynamic polymorphism or dynamic typing and it allows a function to be written to take an object of a particular type T and can also work when passed an object that belongs to a type S which is a subtype of T. This has been stated in the Liskov substitution principle.

Object-oriented programming languages implement subtyping polymorphism by using inheritance.

(4) Ad-hoc polymorphism

Ad-hoc polymorphism usually means simple overloading, but also automatic type conversion (called coercion). Under Ad-hoc polymorphism, the programmer has to specify exactly what types are to be usable with a polymorphic function.

It maybe understood in this way that for the user there exists only one function that can act differently based on the inputs it is given while in reality, there are several functions with the same name but different arguments. Thus, ad hoc polymorphism is essentially a dispatch mechanism where code moves through one named function and is dispatched to other functions without having to specify the exact function being called.

(5) Overloading

Under overloading, multiple functions can have the same name (but take in different types). It is the responsibility of the compiler or interpreter of the language to call the right function when required. By using overloading, a single function called ‘Add’ can add integers, floating point values, strings, records etc. When the ‘Add’ function is called, the right function would be called depending on the types of input given to it. This is contrary to parametric polymorphism where such a thing is not possible. Thus, overloading enables the programmer to have a function perform two completely different things based on the type of input passed to it. A function is differentiated from others based on the number of arguments, their order and their data types.

Overloading, as a type of polymorphism is characteristic of object-oriented programming languages, many of which even allow operators to be overloaded in a manner similar to functions which is then called operator overloading. C and C++ provide for such overloading natively. Under operator overloading, the same operator can perform various operations on its arguments. For example, the ‘+’ sign maybe used to add to numbers and at the same time concatenate two arrays of characters (strings).

INHERITANCE

Inheritance
Concept and Meaning of Inheritance:-

Inheritance is an important concept in object-oriented programming. It is the ability of a class of things to inherit the properties of its parent class. Such a class (daughter class) is usually called a derived class. Itis a way to form new classes using already defined It helps reuse existing code.

Inheritance is also known as generalization, because it establishes a hierarchical relationship between classes of objects. For instance, an "animal" is a generalization of "dogs", "cats", "cows" and others. Now since dog is an animal, it has all the characteristics of an animal such has it has 4 legs, a tail etc. Inheritance establishes a ‘is-a’ or ‘is-an’ relationship.

Inheritance helps reduce the complexity in a program as it eliminates the need to write the same code over and over again in a program.

Origin of Inheritance:-

The concept of inheritance and the term ‘object oriented programming’ was first introduced at Xerox PARC in the form of a language called Smalltalk. However, the concept of object oriented programming originated in the PDP-1 system at MIT. The language that used inheritance (and OOP) for the first time was Simula 67. This language was a favorite of Bjarne Stroutstrup, who later added its OOP features to C++, the language developed over the famous programming language, C.

Applications of inheritance:-

There are many different applications of inheritance. They are as follows:

1. Specialization

Inheritance is used to achieve what is called specialization. Specialization can be understood as the creation of a class based on existing classes or objects and adding only those features that are unique to the new class. This process is also known as subtyping. For example, a Student class may have have data like Name, Address, Birthdate etc. Now, a derived class of the Student class maybe a HigherSecondaryStudent class which can have data relating to chosen stream (such as commerce, science, arts etc.). Inheritance allows to create such derived classes without having to write the code pertaining to the data that is repeated throughout a program (as with name, address and birthdate in the above example).
2. Extension

Inheritacne is used to provide additional data or behavior features. This called extension or subclassing. As agianst specialization, with extension the new data or behaviors could have been provided in the inherited class because they are generally applicable to all instances of the class. Extension is used when adding new features into the inherited class is not possible or not appropriate.
3. Code re-use

As explained under specialization, inheritance helps in code re-use. It was one of the primary reasons for developing and using and is called implementation inheritance. Once some code has been written, it can be used again and again throughout a program using inheritance. This saves a large amount of time and energy on the part of the programmer.
4. Overriding

Another use of inheritance is overriding. Overriding is the ability of class or object to replace the implementation of an aspe or a behavior that it has inherited. Overriding aims at deciding which version of the behavior does code from the inherited class see. The answer varies between programming languages, and some languages provide the ability to indicate that a particular behavior is not to be overridden. For example, the Private, Public and Protected keywords used in C++ classes decide how the following data members and member functions are inherited. A private data member or a private member function cannot be accessed by any of its derived classes.


Example using C++

The following example shows how inheritance works.

Consider a class called ‘Shirts’which has Size, Color and Brand as its data members.
class Shirts
{
public:
int size;
char color[10], brand[20];
};

Now, let us consider two derived classes of the above Shirts class, namely, Printed_Shirts, Ordered_Shirts. Now, both of these classes will have the same data members as the original Shirts class. The only thing that makes them different is Print_Size (for Printed_Shirts) and Customer_Name (for Ordered Shirts). So, for this, we can use inheritance as follows.
class Printed_ Shirts:: public Shirts
{
public:
int print_ size;
};


class Ordered_ Shirts:: public Shirts
{
public:
char customer_name[30];
};

So, both the derived classes have only the unique data members defined for them while all other data members are inherited from the parent class, i.e., Shirts.

CRYPTOGRAPHY

Cryptography:-
Cryptography, also called cryptology, is a discipline of mathematics and of computer science that relates to information particularly encryption and authentication.
Cryptography is an interdisciplinary subject and has been influenced by several fields. Before the 20th century came, cryptography was concerned with linguistic patterns. Now, however, cryptography makes use of mathematics, information theory, computational complexity etc. Cryptography is basically a branch of engineering.

Cryptography finds widespread application in areas such as the security of ATM cards, computer passwords, and electronic commerce.

Cryptography usually refers to encryption alone but in reality, decryption is also a part of it. Cryptography, as a word, has been derived from the Greek words kryptons, that means "hidden," and graphein, which means "to write". The basic aim behind cryptography is to convert information (plain text) into unreadable form (cipher text). Ciphers are algorithms to encrypt and decrypt data. While some techniques use the same algorithm to encrypt and decrypt data, some advanced ones have different algorithms in which case the cipher is a pair of the two.

History of cryptography:-

Historically, cryptography was mainly used to ‘encrypt’ data to render it unreadable b a certain person. Reading it required knowing what the text was encrypted with (the key). The earliest form of cryptography called Classical cryptography worked either through transposition ciphers or substitution ciphers. Under transposition ciphers, the order of the letters in the word was changed (eg. History could become Ihtsyor). Substitution ciphers, on the other hand replaced the letters or their groups in a word with others (eg. History may be written as Ijupsz). This simple method was employed by Julius Caesar during his military campaigns.

Steganography, another form of cryptography which is different from encryption aimed at making a message impossible to detect. This was done by hiding the information with some other information. It could also be achieved by using invisible ink, microdots, and digital watermarks to convey hidden information.

As seems obvious, classical ciphers are easy to break. An informed person can easily make out a meaning from such messages. However, these techniques went on until the polyalphabetic cipher was invented by Leon Battista Alberti somewhere around about 1467CE were which different parts of the message (often each plaintext letter) are enciphered using a different key. Still, they were at least partially vulnerable.

In modern day world, the Germans, during the World War II, used the Enigma, a special machine that encrypted information, to convey its plans to other places. The Enigma cipher was broken by Polish mathematicians, and the resultant large-scale decryption of Enigma traffic at Bletchley Park, was an important contributor to the Allied victory.

There are various physical devices that have been used to assist cipher operations. One of the earliest was the scytale of ancient Greece which was a rod supposedly used by the Spartans to help in transposition cipher. The cipher grille, invented in medieval times, was used for steganography. Probably, the most famous cryptography tool was the Enigma machine used by the Germans.

Much more complicated cyphers were made possible due to the development of digital computers and electronics. One of the most popular algorithms is known as RNA which completely revolutionized the cryptography scene. The RNA algorithm was unbreakable for years. Mostly, the algorithms for cryptography have been ahead of cryptoanalysis which means to ‘break the code’ in order to gain access to the information that was encrypted.

Modern cryptographic techniques:-

The modern field of cryptography can be divided into several areas of study as follows:

(1) Symmetric-key cryptography

Symmetric-key cryptography refers to encryption methods in which both the sender and receiver share the same. Today, it is related to study of block ciphers and stream ciphers and to their applications. A block cipher takes a block of plaintext and a key as input and outputs a block of ciphertext of the same size. Stream ciphers, on the other hand, operate on a continuous stream of plaintext, and produce an encrypted output stream based on an internal state which changes as the cipher operates.

As contrary to this, cryptographic hash functions do not use keys, but are a related class of cryptographic algorithms. They take input data (often a entire message) and output a short, fixed length (160 bits is common), hash, and do so as a one-way function, i.e., a function whose only one way calculation is possible but a reverse is not.

(2) Public-key cryptography

Considered the most revolutionary thought in cryptography, public-key cryptosystems use a public key that may be freely distributed, while its paired private key must remain secret. In public-key encryption, the public key is the encryption key, and the private or secret key is the decryption key. The RSA algorithm is one of the best examples of this type of cryptography. It is used to implement digital signature schemes and is based on computational complexity of problems which pertains to number theory.

3i-infotech looking for GRADUATES/ POST-GRADUATES as trainees

3i-infotech looking for GRADUATES/ POST-GRADUATES as trainees.
3i-infotech looking for GRADUATES/ POST-GRADUATES with/without experience (IT/non-IT) to join as trainees.

1. Selection Process:

Prior work experience is not required. However a strong aptitude for an IT career is a must. To test candidates’ aptitude, an aptitude test will be conducted. The test will be of 90 minutes duration and have sections on logical reasoning ability, quantitative aptitude and English language ability. It will consist of objective questions. Each section will have 50 questions. Passing in every section is essential. There will be negative score for incorrect answers to the extent of 25%. (i.e., if a question is of 1 mark then incorrect answer will have –0.25 marks). The test will be conducted on April 06, 2008. (The exact details of time and venue for the test will be communicated to the interested candidates through their respective admit cards.)

2. Aptitude Test Centers :

The test centers will be located in –
1. Ahmedabad
2. Bangalore
3. Bhopal
4. Bhubaneshwar
5. Chandigarh
6. Chennai
7. Coimbatore
8. Guwahati
9. Hyderabad
10. Indore
11. Jaipur
12. Kochi
13. Kolkata
14. Lucknow
15. Mumbai
16. Nagpur
17. New Delhi
18. Pune
19. Thiruvananthapuram
20. Vishakhapatnam

(As mentioned above, the exact venue will be communicated to the applicants through their respective admit cards.)

3. Interview Centers:

The interviews of candidates short-listed after the aptitude test will be held in –

1. Mumbai
2. New Delhi
3. Kolkata
4. Chennai
5. Bangalore
6. Hyderabad
7. Lucknow
8. Kochi

(The exact venue and time will be communicated to the candidates.)

4. Preference for place of joining :


The selected candidates will be required to join us at New Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Chennai, Hyderabad, Kolkata & Kochi. Indicate your preference on the Application Form. Please note that you can give only one preference. Also, please note that our decision in this regard will be final and binding.

5. Sample Question Paper:

A sample question paper is available at website. Please visit our website www.3i-infotech.com and click on the banner “Opportunity for Fresh Graduates/ Post-graduates” on the home page (under option “Company Careers”) to view/ download the same. Alternatively, you can visit the URL www.3i-infotech.com/freshers. To prepare for the aptitude test, interested students are advised to refer to books available in the market for preparing for CET (MBA)/ GMAT/ CAT exams.

6. Sending us your Application & Examination Fees:

To be able to take this test, the interested candidates need to do the following steps:


1. Register themselves on the “CANDIDATE INTERFACE SYSTEM”.
The URL is (www.3i-infotech.com/freshers)
2. Login with the login name and password from step 1.
3. Fill an Application form online in the “CANDIDATE INTERFACE SYSTEM”.
4. Print the Application Form.
5. Mail the Application Form with a Demand Draft by registered post or speed post or courier.

The examination fees (non refundable) by way of a Demand Draft or Pay Order of a Bank worth Rs.1,500/- (Rupees One Thousand Five hundred Only) payable to 3i Infotech Ltd. at Mumbai so as to reach us on or before March 03, 2008 at the following address :

3i Infotech Ltd.,
Trainee Recruitment Cell
Akruti Trade Center, 3rd floor,
Bhim Nagar, MIDC, Marol,
Andheri (E), Mumbai 400 093.
Ph : 022 39145


For More details www.3i-infotech.com/freshers

INDIAN SPACE RESEARCH ORGANISATION Looking PhD Professionals

INDIAN SPACE RESEARCH ORGANISATION Looking PhD Professionals
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

DEPARTMENT OF SPACE

INDIAN SPACE RESEARCH ORGANISATION

Live Register

for PhD Professionals

Are you a young Doctoral Scientist/Engineer, awaiting for an opportunity to serve our Nation, its Space Programme, and seeking exciting assignments in frontier areas of science and technology?
ISRO with a vision to develop India as a major space faring nation with a multi- Click Here dimensional program benefiting every citizen, is looking for young, dynamic and dedicated Scientists/Engineers, interested in space science & technology and a wide spectrum of their applications. ISRO is responsible for research, systems development and provision of sustainable and self reliant space based services in areas such as telecommunications, TV broadcasting, meteorological applications, natural resources survey, disaster warning, environmental monitoring. INSAT and IRS series of satellites, operated by ISRO are well recognised as being the state-of-the-art. The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) developed by ISRO is now operational and is being used for launch of Indian and foreign satellites. Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV), for launching INSAT class of satellite has also been made operational.Work on next generation satellites to provide enhanced and augmented services is in progress.

ISRO with its state-of-the-art technology and excellent technical infrastructure and facilities, offers challenging roles and good opportunities for young Scientists/Engineers to channelise their talents for nation building. Endowed with a unique work culture of its own, ISRO enables committed and hard working men and women to carve out a niche for themselves by their scientific and technical achievements.

Excellent professional and career growth potential are available for right persons on appointment as Scientist/Engineer-SD. Promotions based on merit, excellent laboratories, library, computer and other infrastructural facilities exist. Attractive benefits such as free transport, housing accommodation, house building advance, medical facilities, subsidised canteen, provident fund, pension, insurance and other social security measures are also provided.

PhD holders (also those who have submitted the thesis and awaiting award of the degree) with specialisation in Science or Engineering that are relevant to ISRO such as Aeronautics, Agriculture, Atmospheric Sciences, Chemical, Civil, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Computer, Control Systems, Electrical, Electro-Optics, Electronics, Environmental, Geology, Material Science and Metallurgy, Mechanical, Oceanography, Power Systems, Remote Sensing, Space Science, Structures, Telecommunication, Water Resources, etc., are invited to register themselves for possible employment in ISRO. As and when vacancy arises, those enrolled in the Live Register will be considered for selection based on the discipline in which vacancy occurs.

For Live Register Click Here

ABAP Interview Questions

ABAP Interview Questions

1. What is the typical structure of an ABAP program?
2. What are field symbols and field groups? Have you used "component idx of structure" clause with field groups?
3. What should be the approach for writing a BDC program?
4. What is a batch input session?
5. What is the alternative to batch input session?
6. A situation: An ABAP program creates a batch input session. We need to submit the program and the batch session in background. How to do it?
7. What is the difference between a pool table and a transparent table and how they are stored at the database level?
8. What are the problems in processing batch input sessions? How is batch input process different from processing on line?
9. What do you define in the domain and data element?
10. What are the different types of data dictionary objects?
11. How many types of tables exist and what are they in data dictionary?
12. What is the step-by-step process to create a table in data dictionary?
13. Can a transparent table exist in data dictionary but not in the database physically?
14. What are the domains and data elements?
15. Can you create a table with fields not referring to data elements?
16. What is the advantage of structures? How do you use them in the ABAP programs?
17. What does an extract statement do in the ABAP program?
18. What is a collect statement? How is it different from append?
19. What is open sql vs native sql?
20. What does an EXEC SQL stmt do in ABAP? What is the disadvantage of using it?
21. What is the meaning of ABAP editor integrated with ABAP data dictionary?
22. What are the events in ABAP language?
23. What is an interactive report? What is the obvious diff of such report compared with classical type reports?
24. What is a drill down report?
25. How do you write a function module in SAP? Describe.
26. What are the exceptions in function module?
27. What is a function group?
28. How are the date abd time field values stored in SAP?
29. What are the fields in a BDC_Tab Table?
30. Name a few data dictionary objects?
31. What happens when a table is activated in DD?
32. What is a check table and what is a value table?
33. What are match codes? Describe?
34. What transactions do you use for data analysis?
35. What is table maintenance generator?
36. What are ranges? What are number ranges?
37. What are select options and what is the diff from parameters?
38. How do you validate the selection criteria of a report? And how do you display initial values in a selection screen?
39. What are selection texts?
40. What is CTS and what do you know about it?
41. When a program is created and need to be transported to prodn does selection texts always go with it? if not how do you make sure? Can you change the CTS entries? How do you do it?
42. What is the client concept in SAP? What is the meaning of client independent?
43. Are programs client dependent?
44. Name a few system global variables you can use in ABAP programs?
45. What are internal tables? How do you get the number of lines in an internal table? How to use a specific number occurs statement?
46. How do you take care of performance issues in your ABAP programs?
47. What are datasets?
48. How to find the return code of a stmt in ABAP programs?
49. What are interface/conversion programs in SAP?
50. Have you used SAP supplied programs to load master data?

Oracle Interview Questions with Answers

Oracle Interview Questions with Answers
1. What is a CO-RELATED SUBQUERY

A CO-RELATED SUBQUERY is one that has a correlation name as table or view designator in the FROM clause of the outer query and the same correlation name as a qualifier of a search condition in the WHERE clause of the subquery.
eg
SELECT field1 from table1 X
WHERE field2>(select avg(field2) from table1 Y
where
field1=X.field1);


(The subquery in a correlated subquery is revaluated for every row of the table or view named in the outer query.)

2. What are various joins used while writing SUBQUERIES

Self join-Its a join foreign key of a table references the same table.

Outer Join-Its a join condition used where One can query all the rows of one of the tables in the join condition even though they don't satisfy the join condition.

Equi-join-Its a join condition that retrieves rows from one or more tables in which one or more columns in one table are equal to one or more columns in the second table.

3. What are various constraints used in SQL

NULL
NOT NULL
CHECK
DEFAULT

4. What are different Oracle database objects

TABLES
VIEWS
INDEXES
SYNONYMS
SEQUENCES
TABLESPACES etc

5. What is difference between Rename and Alias

Rename is a permanent name given to a table or column whereas Alias is a temporary name given to a table or column which do not exist once the SQL statement is executed.

6. What is a view

A view is stored procedure based on one or more tables, its a virtual table.

7. What are various privileges that a user can grant to another user

SELECT
CONNECT
RESOURCE

8. What is difference between UNIQUE and PRIMARY KEY constraints

A table can have only one PRIMARY KEY whereas there can be any number of UNIQUE keys. The columns that compose PK are automatically define NOT NULL, whereas a column that compose a UNIQUE is not automatically defined to be mandatory must also specify the column is NOT NULL.

9. Can a primary key contain more than one columns

Yes

10. How you will avoid duplicating records in a query

By using DISTINCT

CISCO PLACEMENT PAPER

CISCO Placement Papers

SECTION 1 -- BASIC DIGITAL SECTION

1. In order to find out stack fault of a three input nand gate how many necessary input vectors are needed ?

2. What is parity generation ?

3. A nand gate becomes ___ gate when used with negative logic ?

4. What is the advantage of cmos over nmos ?

5. What is the advantage of syncronous circuits over asynchronous circuits ?

6. What is the function of ALE in 8085 ?

7. A voice signal sample is stored as one byte. Frequency range is 16 Hz to 20 Hz. What is the memorysize required to store 4 minutes voice signal?

8. What will the controller do before interrupting CPU?

9. In a normalised floating point representation, mantissa is represented using 24 bits and exponent with 8 bits using signed representation. What is range ?

10. The stack uses which policy out of the following-- LIFO, FIFO, Round Robin or none of these ?

11. Where will be the actual address of the subroutine is placed for vectored interrupts?

12. Give the equivalent Gray code reprasentation of AC2H.

13. What is the memory space required if two unsigned 8 bit numbers are multiplied ?

14. The vector address of RST 7.5 in 8085 processor is _______.

Ans. 003C (multiply 7.5 by 8 and convert to hex)

15. Subtract the following hexadecimal numbers--- 8416 - 2A16

16. Add the following BCD numbers--- 1001 and 0100

17. How much time does a serial link of 64 Kbps take to transmit a picture with 540 pixels.

18. Give the output when the input of a D-flip flop is tied to the output through the XOR gate.

19. Simplify the expression AB + A( B + C ) + B ( B + C )

20. Determine the logic gate to implement the foolowing terms--ABC, A+B+C

21. Implement the NOR gate as an inverter.

22. What is the effect of temperature on the Icb in a transistor

23. What is the bit storage capacity of a ROM with a 512*4 organisation?

24. What is the reason of the refresh operation in dynamic RAM's ?

25. Suppose that the D input of a flip flop changes from low to high in the middle of a clock pulse.Describe what happens if the flip flop is a positive edge triggered type?

26. How many flip flops are required to produce a divide by 32 device ?

27. An active HIGH input S-R latch has a 1 on the S input and a 0 on the R input. What state is the latch in?

28. Implement the logic equation Y = C^BA^ + CB^A + CBA with a multiplexer. (where C^ stands for C complement)

29.Equivalent Gray code reprasentation of AC2H.

30. What does a PLL consist of ?

SECTION 2 - SOFTWARE SECTION

1. The starting location of an array is 1000. If the array[1..5/...4] is stored in row major order, what is the location of element [4,3]. Each word occupies 4 bytes.

2. In a tertiary tree, which has three childs for every node, if the number of internal nodes are N, then the total number of leaf nodes are

3. Explain the term "locality of reference" ?

4. What is the language used for Artificial Intelligence

Ans: lisp

5. What is the character set used in JAVA 2.0 ?

Ans: Unicode

6. char a =0xAA ;
int b ;
b = (int) a ;
b = b >> 4 ;
printf("%x",b);

What is the output of the above program segment ?

7. struct s1 { struct { struct { int x; } s2 } s3 }y;
How does one access x in the above given structure definition ?

8. Why there is no recursion in Fortran ?

Ans. There is no dynamic allocation.

9. What is the worst case complexity of Quick sort?

Ans. O(n2)

10. What will be sequence of operating system activities when an interrupt occurs ?

11. In a sequential search, what is the average number of comparisons it takes to search through n elements ?

Ans: (n+1)/2.

12. What is the size of the array declared as double * X[5] ?

Ans. 5 * sizeof ( double * )

13. A binary search tree with node information as 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 is given. Write the result obtained on preorder traversal of the binary search tree ?

Ans : 53124768

14. If size of the physical memory is 232-1, then what is the size of the virtual
memory ?

15. S -> A0B
A-> BB|0
B-> AA|1
How many strings of length 5 are possible with the above productions?

16. (3*4096+15*256+3*16+3). How many 1's are there in the binary representation of the result ?

Ans. 10

17. In memory mapped I/O how is I/O is accessed ?

18. What is the use of ALE in 8085 ?

Ans To latch the lower byte of the address.

19. If the logical memory of 8 X 1024 is mapped into 32 frames, then the number of bits for the logical address are____ ?

Ans. 13

20. Context free grammar is useful for which purpose ?

21. In ternary number representation, numbers are represented as 0,1,-1.(Here -1 is represented as 1 bar.) How is 352/9 represented in ternary number representation?

22. There are processes which take 4,1,8,1 machine cycles respectively. If these are executed in round robin fashion with a time quantum of 1, what is the time it take for process 4 to complete ?

Ans. 9

23. The minimum frequency of operation is specified for every processor because......
a)for interfacing slow peripherals
b)dynamic memory refreshing.
c)to make compatible with other processor.

24. For linked list implementation , which search is not applicable ?

Ans: Binary search.

25. Each character is represented by 7 bits, 1 bit is used to represent error bit and another bit for parity. If total number of bits transmitted is 1200 bits, then what is the number of symbols that can be transmitted ?

Ans: 133

26. Explain set associativity of cache ?

27. Write the postfix form of the following expression .
A+[[(B+C)+(D+E)*F]/G]

28. What is the function of the linker?

29. void f(int y)
{
struct s *ptr;
ptr = malloc (sizeof (struct)+99*sizeof(int));
}

struct s{
int i;
float p;
};

when free (ptr) is executed, then what will happen?

30. To concatenate two linked lists strings, the order is O(1) is obtained for what kind of list?

PREVIOUS YEAR PAPERS OF IGNOU

CLICK THE FOLLOWING TO GET FREE DOWNLOAD OF PREVIOUS YEAR PAPERS OF IGNOU

PREVIOUS YEAR PAPERS OF BACHELORS IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY JUNE 2007


COMPUTER PLATFORMS

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

SOFTWARE CONSTRUCTS AND TOOLS

COMPUTING SOLUTIONS

QUALITY MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES

COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

NETWORKING

DATA ANALYSIS AND DATABASE DESIGN

VISUAL PROGRAMMING

HUMAN COMPUTER INTERFACE

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

COMPUTER MANAGEMENT

WEBSITE MANAGEMENT

TECHNIQUES OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING

MULTIMEDIA AND INTERNET DEVELOPMENT

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES

MCA PREVIOUS YEAR PAPERS 2007

COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS

INTRODUCTION TO SOFTWARE

FILE STRUCTURE AND PROGRAMMING IN COBOL

DATA STRUCTURES THROUGH ''C" & ,,PASCAL''

ELEMENTS OF SYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

DISCRETE MATHEMATICS

NUMERICAL&STATISTICAL COMPUTING

DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKS

SOFTWARE ENGINEERING

COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE

OPERATING SYSTEMS

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS

RELATIONAL DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

OBJECT ORIENTED SYSTEMS

OPERATIONS RESEARCH

FINANCE & ACCOUNTING ON COMPUTERS

PROBLEM SOLVING AND PROGRAMMING

COMPUTER ORGANISATION & ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING

DISCRETE MATHEMATICS

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

COMMUNICATION SKILLS

DATA AND FILE STRUCTURES

OPERATING SYSTEM CONCEPTS AND NETWORKING MANAGEMENT

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

OBJECT ORIENTED TECHNOLOGIES AND JAVA

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHMS

OBJECT ORIENTED ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

MBA PREVIOUS PAPERS

RETAIL MANAGEMENT JUNE 2005


BA in Social Work

Introduction to Family Life Education

B.Tech. Civil (Construction Management)


System Methods


MATHEMATICS-II

Design Detailing December 2006


Quantity Surveying & Valuation December 2006

CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY & CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES December 2005


Construction Works Supervision December 2006

Retail Management 2005 (MBA)

Retail Management 2005 (MBA)
MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME
Term-End Examination

June, 2005

MS-612 : RETAIL MANAGEMENT

Time: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 100
(Weightage 70%)
Note : (i) Attempt any three questions from Section A.
(ii) Section B is compulsory.
(iii) All questions carry equal marks.

SECTION A

1. Define retailing. Discuss the scope and prospects of retail sector in the Indian context, describing the drivers of growth of retailing in the country.

2. (a) What are the stages of consumer decision making and their impact on retail strategies ? Explain with suitable examples.

(b) What makes locational decisions in retailing strategic in nature ? Discuss with suitable examples the factors necessary to consider before selecting a final site for any store.

3. (a) How important is the role of pricing in retail marketing mix ? Briefly discuss the various retail pricing approaches available to the retailer.

(b) What are loyalty programmes ? What purpose do they serve in the overall retail business? Explain.

4. Briefly discuss the various types of non-store retailing currently in vogue. What are their limitations ?

5. Write notes on any three of the following :

(a) Functions of Retailers
(b) Wheel of Retailing
(c) Responsibilities of Merchandising Manager
(d) CRM
(e) Ethical Responsibilities of Retailer

SECTION B

6. Read the case given below and answer the questions given at the end of the case.

Margin Free Market Private Ltd.

Subhiksha in Chennai, Margin free in Kerala, Bombay Bazaar in Mumbai, RPG'S Giant in Hyderabad, and Big Bazaar in Kolkata, Hyderabad, and Bangalore have one thing in common - they all price their products below MRP. Discount stores are slowly arriving in India and industry insiders feel they will spearhead a revolution in organized retailing. On the list of top retailers in the world, quite a few are discounters. Around 60% of the business abroad comes from this format. Incidentally, the largest retailer in the world, Wal-Mart, is a discount store.

Margin Free was registered as a co-operative society in 1993 in Kerala and entered the supermarket business in 1994. It is run by the Consumer Protection and Guidance Society, a charitable organization based in Thiruvananthapuram. Today, it has emerged as India's number one supermarket chain with 150 stores and a turnover of Rs. 450 crores. Margin Free purchases directly from manufacturers at ex-factory price and sells at lower prices than the MRP, as it eliminates the margin accrued in the traditional manufacturer-stockist-wholesaler-retailer network.

Margin Free takes extreme care while pricing the products through its entire stores. It has employed software which evaluates the price by minimizing profits. Every store is computerized and utilities the software to determine the pricing. This helps in ensuring that the products are rationally priced.

Margin Free has found exceptional success in its scalable franchised model. It is now looking to upgrade to a central warehouse concept. which will help it manage growth further. The success of Subhiksha and Margin Free indicate that the discount war will hot up in the coming months but it will be the customer who will emerge as the final winner.

Margin Free also gets an average credit of 20-22 days from suppliers, which it sells, on an average in 10 days, thereby even earning a notional interest on its sales also. Its strategy has made it flush with funds, which can finance further expansion. Margin Free uses its customer base as a bargaining power to strike discount deals. Any dealer who wants to set up a Margin Free store has to buy at least rupees one lakh worth of share of the main Margin Free holding company. Margin Free has a consumer base of 6 lakhs and it sells them consumer cards at Rs. 40 per year Customers who buy using this card get discounts on bulk purchases and also on government subsidized produces like Rs. 2 per kg rice.

The stores are now opting for a major expansion drive. A key part of this is the introduction of private labelling, which is the season's flavour in the retailing industry. For the purpose they have shortlisted 15 items - all generic labels like rice, sugar, etc. - and will add to the list in future.

Hence, they will be in a better position to provide quality stuff at considerably low prices within easy reach of an average middle-class family. For example, a packet of tea which sells for an MRP of Rs. 120 at one of the corporate retailers, will be available for Rs. 90 at the Margin Free stores.

The chain is now planning to open huge Margin Free hyper markets, The first such hyper market, featuring an array of wares and spread over 50,000 square feet of well-laid out space, is planned to open at Ernakulam. The two other hyper markets would be opened in Thiruvananthapuram and Kozhikode.

If the success of retail activity is measured in the number of outlets, the existing 240-odd chain of franchisees must have already made Margin Free the largest 'pure retail chain' (as distinct from retailers who are manufacturers) in the private sector Even going by the number of footfalls, the Kerala-based retailer must have already beaten competition by a handsome margin.

The hyper markets will feature almost all conceivable retailing products under one roof - textiles, leather, cosmetics, provisions, electronic goods, consumer durables, grains; and grocery. As for ambiance and class, they are most likely to resemble the Giant retailing chain operating out of Hyderabed and other cities.

The hyper market would not dabble in imported items - Chinese or otherwise - that are flooding the retail market right now. The cooperative society is in the process of mobilizing resources for the hyper market initiative. It plans to rope in outside investments over and above what the Consumer Protection and Guidance Society hopes to raise on its own.

The Society chose Ernakulam first because it happens to be the most commercialized city in the state Also, the comparable purchasing capacities are higher there. The nomenclature for the hyper market has a Margin Free prefix to it, seeking to build on the enormous trust that the discount chain has been able to build over a span of eight years of existence.

The management feels that the Margin Free retail chain has been able to earn the wholesale trust of consumers in a very short span. However, in its journey to success, the Margin Free stores have made life slightly uncomfortable for entrenched interests who have, on one hand, been fleecing consumers and on the other, resorting to indiscriminate under invoicing to avoid tax. The latter leads to loss of crores of rupees in realizable revenue for the state government.

Every month, Margin Free is opening upto 12 stores and the number has grown to 241 at last count. The chain has spread to literally all parts of Kerala. It has seven franchisees in neighboring Tamil Nadu already and two in Karnataka. The overall turnover has grown to Rs. 600 crore.

Questions :

(a) What has been the role of pricing strategy in the success of Margin Free Markets?

(b) What are the salient features of Margin Free Market pricing strategy ?

(c) Analyse the external and internal factors that have made it possible to sustain the present pricing strategy of Margin Free Market.

(d) Discuss the limitations of the existing pricing strategy of Margin Free Market. Suggest appropriate changes.

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B.TECH PREVIOUS YEAR PAPERS


MANAGEMENT SCIENCE B.TECH PRODUCTION (APRIL 2004) (JNTU)

MANAGEMENT SCIENCE B.Tech Production (JNTU)

MANAGEMENT SCIENCE B.Tech Production (JNTU)

April / May-2004 Examinations

Set No. 1

MANAGEMENT SCIENCE

(Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering, Electronics & Telematics)

[Time:3 hours]
Max. Marks:80

Answer any FIVE questions

All questions carry equal marks

1. What is an organization? Explain different types of organizations along with their merits and demerits.

2. What is social responsibility?

3. What do you understand by Acceptance sampling? Explain the concept of single and double sampling plans.

4. What are the advantages of training and development?
What are the difference between training and development?

5. State the objectives of purchasing. Describe the various steps involved in purchase procedure for a medium size industry.

6. What is productivity? Discuss some of the tools and factors which affect productivity.

7. a) What are the objectives of network analysis?
b) What are the applications of network analysis?
c) State the differences between PERT and CPM.

8. Write a note on optimization of project cost and project duration. Illustrate your answer

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(1) B.TECH COMPUTER SCIENCE ENGINEERING (CSE) PREVIOUS YEARS QUESTION PAPERS


EXPERT SYSTEMS B. Tech 6th Sem 2005

NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM B.Tech 2005

ADVANCED INTERNET TECHNOLOGY B. Tech 6th SEMESTER 2005

RELATIONAL DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM CS B.Tech 5th Semester 2003

ELECTRONIC COMMERCE B.Tech 5th Sem May 2005

B. Tech 8th Sem ADVANCED MICROPROCESSOR 2005

B.Tech 6th Sem SOFTWARE ENGINEERING 2005

B.Tech 6th SOFTWARE ENGINEERING 2006

COMPUTER NETWORKS MAY 2005 (5TH SEMESTER)

OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING B.Tech 4th Semester 2005


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MICROPROCESSOR AND ITS APPLICATIONS B.Tech EC 5th Semester 2003


Industrial Electronics B.Tech EC 5th Semester 2003

INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS EC B Tech 5th Sem 2005

FIBRE OPTICS COMMMUNICATION B Tech 8th EC 2005

COMPUTER NETWORK EC B.Tech 5th 2005

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING EC B.Tech 6th 2005

COMMUNICATION SYSTEM II B.Tech EC 2005

RADAR SYSTEM & NAVIGATION B.Tech 6th EC 2005

MICROPROCESSOR & ITS APPLICATION B.Tech EC 2005

LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS B.Tech EC 5th Sem 2005

ANTENNA AND WAVE PROPAGATION B.Tech EC 5th Sem 2007

ANTENNA & WAVE PRPAGATION B.Tech 5TH Sem 2005

ANALOG COMMUNICATION SYSTEM B.Tech EC 5th Sem 2005

ANALOG COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS/ SYSTEM ANALYSIS & DESIGN EC 2007

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY B.Tech EC 4th Sem. 2005

COMM. SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS EC 4th Sem 2005

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS B.Tech EC 3rd Semester 2005

ANALOG COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS DECEMBER 2007 (5TH SEMESTER)

ANALOG ELECTONICS B Tech 4th 2007

ANALOG ELECTRONICS B.Tech EC 4th Sem 2005

ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENT & INSTRUMENTATION EC 5th Sem 2005

ELECTRONIC DEVICES AND CIRCUITS B.Tech 3rd Sem 2005

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TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT B. TECH. 6th Sem. ME 2005

INDUSTRIAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT B.Tech ME 2005

FLUID MACHINERY B. Tech 6 Sem 2005

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING B.Tech ME 2005

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING B.Tech ME 2006

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ENGINEERING PHYSICS B.TECH (2ND SEMESTER)

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MARKETING RESEARCH DECEMBER 2007 (3RD/4TH SEMESTER)


(6) MCA (MASTER OF COMPUTER APPLICATIONS) PREVIOUS YEAR QUESTION PAPERS

MCA 3rd Semester Question Paper Of Software Engineering - December 2007

MCA 2nd Semester Question Paper Of C++ June 2007

MCA 2nd Semester Question Paper Of Microprocessor - June 2007

MCA 2nd Semester Question Paper of Principles Of Management (PPM) - June 2007

MCA 4th Semester Paper of OBJECT ORIENTED ANALYSIS AND DESIGN (OOAD)- May 2008

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Question Paper for Object Orient Programming Using C++ of BCA 3rd Semester


Question Paper for Introduction To Microprocessor of BCA 2nd Semester

Question Paper for Computer Graphics of BCA 5th Semester


Question Paper for Artificial Intelligence of BCA 6th Semester

Question Papers of CET 2009

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